The Dubrovnik Symphony Orchestra celebrated its 95th anniversary in 2020. As an important part of the rich and varied cultural heritage of the city of Dubrovnik and the Republic of Croatia, the Dubrovnik Symphony Orchestra continues to perform in the unique ambience of its town, such as in the renowned Rector's Palace atrium, and the city churches and squares. The Dubrovnik Symphony Orchestra has performed throughout the years with the greatest local and international artists, interpreting the works of masters of the Baroque, Classical and Romantic periods, not only in Dubrovnik, but also on its tours around the world.

The Orchestra has been in operation continuously in the city of Dubrovnik since 1924, initially as a semi-professional organization, and now as a fully professional orchestra. The Dubrovnik Symphony Orchestra continues the long and significant musical tradition that had already been developed in the early years of the Republic of Dubrovnik (1358–1808). The Orchestra was founded by a group of young, enthusiastic students of the Gymnasium school in Dubrovnik. The original name of the Orchestra – the Dubrovnik Orchestra – was changed in 1925 to the Dubrovnik Philharmonic Orchestra. During the ensuing years, the Orchestra's membership was steadily increasing and the Orchestra's technical sophistication allowed the ensemble to perform more intricate and demanding musical works, often under famous conductors, including Tadeusz Sygietyński and Josef Vlach-Vrutický, premiering the works of Ludomir Michał Rogowski. In 1946, the members of the Orchestra, aware of a pressing need to offer a more competitive product to the increasing and diverse tourist market, formed another musical body called the Dubrovnik City Orchestra. The Dubrovnik City Orchestra was the city's first fully professional orchestra, performing mostly for the Dubrovnik Summer Festival (formed in the 1950s). For a short time, the Orchestra was called the Dubrovnik Festival Orchestra. With chief conductor at the time, Nikola Debelić, the Orchestra achieved a number of successful tours during the '70s (Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands) and in cooperation with the New York agency, Columbia Artists Management, the Orchestra went on a three-month tour to the USA and Canada, with over 120 concerts with soloists such as Vladimir Krpan, Ivo Pogorelić and Valter Dešpalj. In 1992, the Orchestra renamed itself for the last time as the Dubrovnik Symphony Orchestra.

The members of the Dubrovnik Symphony Orchestra are musicians with a conservatoire education, mostly from the Zagreb Academy of Music. The Orchestra performs numerous concerts, including tours all over Europe and the USA. The Orchestra has collaborated with distinguished conductors and soloists, Lovro von Matačić, Antonio Janigro, Zubin Mehta, Kiril Kondrashin, Ernst Marzendorfer, Milan Horvat, Pavle Dešpalj, Anton Nanut, Nikola Debelić, David Ojstrah, Lord Yehudi Menuhin, Mstislav Rostropovich, Svjatoslav Richter, Henryk Szeryng, Uto Ughi, Christoph Eschenbach, Stefan Milenkovich, Ivo Pogorelić, Dubravka Tomšič, Dunja Vejzović, Ruža Pospiš Baldani, Monika Leskovar, Radovan Vlatković, Mischa Maisky, Yuri Bashmet, Julian Rachlin, Michel Legrand, Anton Nanut, Ivo Dražinić, Alun Francis, Maxim Fedotov, Maxim Vengerov, Nicholas Milton, Christoph Campestrini, Dmitry Sinkovsky, Emmanuel Tjeknavorian, Gordan Nikolitch and many others.

Over the last few years, the Dubrovnik Symphony Orchestra has performed in some of the leading venues and cities all over the world, such as the Kennedy Center, Washington; New York; Seattle; the Kurhaus, Wiesbaden; Eberbach; the Lisinski Concert Hall, Zagreb; the Château de Vêves, Versailles; Basel; Medan; Jakarta; and the Musikverein Goldener Saal, Vienna.
In 2005, the Dubrovnik Symphony Orchestra was awarded the Milka Trnina prize, which is the most prestigious musical branch award in Croatia, and in 2015, the Dubrovnik Symphony Orchestra received a special acknowledgement for increasing the reputation of the Dubrovnik-Neretva County through promotion to Croatia and the world.  Dubrovnik Symphony Orchestra was awarded The Grand Prix Orlando in 2020  for special artistic contribution in the realization of the entire program of the Dubrovnik Summer Festival in one festival year or more festival seasons.

The Dubrovnik Symphony Orchestra have organized several festivals and music cycles over the last couple of years, such as the International Opera Arias Festival “Tino Pattiera”, International Late Summer Music Festival Dubrovnik, Autumn Music Variety, and Baroque music cycle Orlando Furioso.